Among the earliest work combining these two together was this blog author's work back in 2008. NTPs were modified at terminal phosphates with click chemistry groups such as terminal alkene, terminal alkyne, and azide. Click chemistry was performed to generate libraries used as polymerase substrates in DNA sequencing platforms. Those were published as patent applications:
WO 2009/091847 (PCT/US2009/031027); WO 2009/105077 (PCT/US2008/008612); US 2001/0165652.
Chem Comm published online 12/20/2013 the Advance Article for 2014, titled "Synthesis of r-labeled nucleotide 5'-triphosphates using click chemistry".